Tag Archives: Reference

Law and Legal Issues

Law and Legal Issues

One way or another, you might find yourself having some trouble with the law, or being asked to appear in court to resolve some legal issues, but what are legal issues exactly? What do they have to do with the law?


The law

The law as most people know it is essentially a system of rules or guidelines which people are expected to follow. However, there are no universal laws. Instead, laws differ from territory to territory, because laws are usually made by governments, and take inspiration from a constitution and the rights defined in it. As such, no two countries have the same set of laws because they do not have the same constitution.


Law is tends to be divided into two main areas: Criminal law and civil law. Criminal law delves into social conduct and dealing with behavior that is found dangerous to the welfare of the people, and administers punishment when someone is found guilty of a crime. Meanwhile, civil law focuses on disputes between two parties and is distinct from criminal law because civil law is all about resolving a dispute or coming to an agreement between two parties instead of punishing a criminal.


Legal issues

The phrase “legal issues” can cover a lot of things, but they all boil down to being a cause for concern when it comes to the law. This basically means that a fact of law is being disputed over by two or more parties and sometimes needs to be settled at court.

Some issues most people are familiar with involve:
• Wills and trust funds in which the issues are the person’s children or lineal/direct descendants;
• Business issues in which the issues are the company’s stocks; and
• Civil and criminal procedure in which the issues are issues of fact, or whether something is true or false.

Issues in civil and criminal procedure are the issues that may be most familiar to people nowadays, as there are a lot of crime dramas that place emphasis on trials and other functions of the court.



Lawyers are people who practice law, and are hired by individuals or companies to perform legal services for them. They can also be called counselors, attorneys and solicitors, depending on the jurisdiction where they practice.

There tends to be a lot of misconception about the profession, like a lawyer can perform any legal task given to them, but this is not true. Like doctors, lawyers usually study and stick to one field, and this is where they represent their clients. 

For example, someone may study to become a prosecutor, but that does not mean they’re immediately qualified to divorce matters as well.


In addition, not all hired lawyers work in courtrooms. Some tend to other legal work behind the scenes such as contracts and protecting the intellectual property of their employers, and there are also those who have never been to court at all. 

These people are called transactional attorneys.


There is also one huge misconception about lawyers, and it’s usually that they don’t pay enough special attention to their clients, which is not so. In the end, lawyers are bound by law to protect their clients and must act to the benefit of their employers, even if their clients are criminals or have broken the law for their own interests.


Catalogs and Directories

Catalogs and Directories


No doubt you’ve heard of the words “catalog” and “directory” by now, as you can find the words everywhere if you’re into shopping, computer science or even working at a library or any kind of store. However, some people seem to think that these two words mean the same and tend to use them interchangeably.


So what’s the difference between catalog and directory, and when should you use them?



A catalog is a systematic list of items, usually on display or for sale, that includes brief descriptions of the items in question. The items on the list are classified according to a categorical system that all depends on what the catalog is being used for and who or what maintains it.


In some fields and studies, like computing sciences, a catalog is also considered a list within a directory, though one of the most common uses of a “catalog” is in commerce.


A catalog for commerce a categorized collection of products and is used for displaying items for sale in a store, whether it’s a physical store or an online one. These catalogs contain images of the product, along with a brief description of their uses, prices, customer reviews, and sometimes even a video demonstration of the item being used.


There are also catalogs for the library, called the library catalog which is a register of all the books and other items within a library. However, the catalog for public use is called something else: The card or online catalogs. These catalogs not only have information on what books are in the library, but also who had written them, when they had been published and where to find the books.



Like a catalog, a directory is also a list of items, however most are familiar with it in book form, like telephone directories and business directories.


Business directories are usually printed lists of businesses organized by category and alphabetically, which we tend to know as yellow pages. However, there are also business directories online that serve the same purpose.


Meanwhile, telephone directories are well known are thick books that list a company’s telephone subscribers, either nationwide or in a specific geographical area, usually containing a person’s name, address and telephone number. These are usually found in telephone booths, but homeowners also have their own copies that are published and delivered free of charge. Some companies also opt to have online directories in case someone’s hard copy is destroyed or goes missing.


There are also web directories, which lists websites by category and provides direct links to them. However, they’re not like search engines, as they don’t use websites based on keywords. Most web directories are created and updated by hand, so a person has to decide for themselves if a particular site is enough to be linked to.


Nowadays, one of the most common uses for the word “directory” is a computer directory or database, which is a system structure used to organize and contain several files within a computer, sometimes with smaller directories called subdirectories. Directories in this manner can also be called “folders”, which is the term we’re more familiar with when it comes to organizing our computers.