Category Archives: Reference

Catalogs and Directories


Catalogs and Directories


No doubt you’ve heard of the words “catalog” and “directory” by now, as you can find the words everywhere if you’re into shopping, computer science or even working at a library or any kind of store. However, some people seem to think that these two words mean the same and tend to use them interchangeably.


So what’s the difference between catalog and directory, and when should you use them?



A catalog is a systematic list of items, usually on display or for sale, that includes brief descriptions of the items in question. The items on the list are classified according to a categorical system that all depends on what the catalog is being used for and who or what maintains it.


In some fields and studies, like computing sciences, a catalog is also considered a list within a directory, though one of the most common uses of a “catalog” is in commerce.


A catalog for commerce a categorized collection of products and is used for displaying items for sale in a store, whether it’s a physical store or an online one. These catalogs contain images of the product, along with a brief description of their uses, prices, customer reviews, and sometimes even a video demonstration of the item being used.


There are also catalogs for the library, called the library catalog which is a register of all the books and other items within a library. However, the catalog for public use is called something else: The card or online catalogs. These catalogs not only have information on what books are in the library, but also who had written them, when they had been published and where to find the books.



Like a catalog, a directory is also a list of items, however most are familiar with it in book form, like telephone directories and business directories.


Business directories are usually printed lists of businesses organized by category and alphabetically, which we tend to know as yellow pages. However, there are also business directories online that serve the same purpose.


Meanwhile, telephone directories are well known are thick books that list a company’s telephone subscribers, either nationwide or in a specific geographical area, usually containing a person’s name, address and telephone number. These are usually found in telephone booths, but homeowners also have their own copies that are published and delivered free of charge. Some companies also opt to have online directories in case someone’s hard copy is destroyed or goes missing.


There are also web directories, which lists websites by category and provides direct links to them. However, they’re not like search engines, as they don’t use websites based on keywords. Most web directories are created and updated by hand, so a person has to decide for themselves if a particular site is enough to be linked to.


Nowadays, one of the most common uses for the word “directory” is a computer directory or database, which is a system structure used to organize and contain several files within a computer, sometimes with smaller directories called subdirectories. Directories in this manner can also be called “folders”, which is the term we’re more familiar with when it comes to organizing our computers.



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What is etiquette? We hear that word a lot in society, especially in fancy gatherings and laces, but what exactly does the word mean, and what does it entail?

Etiquette, in its most basic form, is a code of behavior or social convention expected from a person by society and in certain situations. For example, you’re expected to act and speak a certain way depending on your social standing or profession. This may seem very old-fashioned and outdated in our modern society, but following etiquette is a sign of good manners, and having good manners will never become old-fashioned.

Because of this, there are several different types of etiquette made for different occasions and people.

Business etiquette Displaying proper etiquette will always help you on a business venture with another company or group, as this will always be part of your first impression. A handshake will always be appreciated, as well as introducing yourself properly, remembering names and generally being polite. Sometimes, if you’re dealing with someone with a different cultural background, an appropriate cultural greeting such as a bow when meeting Japanese people will also help you get appreciated by your business partner.

Meanwhile, in the office, it’s best to get along with your coworkers by dressing appropriately, respecting other peoples’ privacy, keeping your work area neat, and always asking before borrowing. This way you wont be viewed as a nuisance or a problematic worker.

International etiquette Etiquette in your hometown will not be the same as the behavioral codes in other countries, so keep this in mind if you’re planning to travel. It’s best to stay informed about how etiquette differs from culture to culture as not to offend people. When in doubt, do some research.

Netiquette With the ever-increasing popularity of the Internet, there’s also a need for unspoken rules of conduct. Just because you’re protected by the anonymity of the Internet doesn’t mean you can offend people as you please.

For example, typing in all caps and using large font sizes are considered obnoxious because these are viewed as the text equivalent of yelling, while posting off-topic and hijacking discussions in a forum thread are viewed as extremely rude and embarrassing to the topic’s original poster. Respecting someone’s privacy is also a must, so sharing information marked as private is always frowned upon.

Cell phone etiquette Have you seen all the warnings to turn off your phone before viewing a movie? There’s a good reason for that: A ringing cell phone can disrupt a movie experience for a lot of people, including yourself. This also goes for other social gatherings and places, such as weddings, libraries and doctor’s offices, since using a cell phone here will be viewed as rude and disruptive to the proceedings.

Answering your cell phone while speaking to someone else is also considered rude, even if you’re in a casual setting. After all, this can send the message that the other person is not as important to you as the one you’re currently speaking to on the phone.

Other important notes
• Physical appearance is important, no matter the situation. Dressing appropriately is a key factor in someone’s first impression of you. • Avoid nervous tics or bad habits. • Politeness and respectfulness goes a long way.


Automotive Trends

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auto3_smlAs technology continues to improve and lead us to a more innovative tomorrow, so automotive trends and styles continue to evolve with it. In decades past, automotives were all about exacting functionality developed to such a fine point, often heedless of aesthetics. While a majority of vehicles nowadays still conform to such outdated standards, the majority of automotive companies nowadays work largely in the imaginative and innovative fields. With technology being an integral part of today’s ‘style’, many car designers have thought it ideal for modern vehicles to reflect the technologically-oriented mindset of the modern driver, once again veering towards functionality, but with a whole lot of style to boot.

While functional and stylish cars were once dream vehicles made specifically for the big screen, or otherwise made available only to the very wealthy, nowadays, automotive trends tend to veer towards the more available, affordable, and readily customizable gizmos, gadgets, and overall aesthetics that make for an ideal vehicle. While killer paint-jobs, chrome rims, low-riders, and surround-sound stereos were the automotive vogues of yesteryear, nowadays, most individuals would rather prefer to drive ‘smart cars’ than your average ‘pimped’ vehicle.

This goes without saying that the ideal car of today needs be equipped with gadgets galore ranging from a fully-automated GPS system, a small, discreet, yet nevertheless powerful sound system, an external viewing module or screen, its own flat-screen TV, and even Internet connectivity.

This technological dependency doesn’t stop there. With the growing rise of ecological awareness and ‘green living’, many trending vehicles are now even being groomed to be both eco-friend and fuel efficient. Gone are the gas guzzlers of the past, with many automotive companies encouraging the development and preference for battery operated or extremely fuel-efficient vehicles. While large vehicles are still a commonplace sight, current automotive trends seem to veer towards the smaller, more compact vehicles.

Not only are such cars more fuel-efficient, they also take up less space and consume less energy. Further trends in the current automotive industry seem to veer towards a preference for the self-thinking car, with automated, computer-controlled functions, calculating engines, automated light-sensitive windows, and automatic windshield wipers being common features, if not frequently imagined or attempted innovations. Even the very framework of vehicles have undergone a futuristic change, with the penchant for truly specialized custom vehicles to be made from ultra-lightweight materials such as fiberglass, which isn’t just fireproof, but is shock and scratch-proof as well!

While in the past, such attempts at technologically ‘adept’ vehicles belonged chiefly to the realm of science fiction, nowadays, battery operated vehicles, thinking cars, and even dynamic GP-systems are now a daily part of a driver’s life. With these recent innovations comes a certain drawback however, as cars become more expensive not due to any innovative change in the overall performance as how it is had after purchase, but due to the ever-constant need to update, improve, upgrade, and enhance the nearly endless number of technological gizmos and gadgets that promise better everything for the right price. In the debate over practicality versus aesthetics + functionality, one will undoubtedly have a hard time deciding which among the two facets of automotive life is worth investing in.