Category Archives: Computers / Internet

How Computer Programming Works.

How Computer Programming Works

Computer programming is like writing instructions that a computer follows to run a program and perform specific operations. Writing codes mean writing lots of instructions and because of the computer’s speed, you can imagine that there are millions of instructions in a matter of second. The process of writing source code would require expertise in different subjects such as the familiarization of the application domain, and specialization in algorithms and formal logic.

The Process

The programming process involves steps which are similar to problem-solving task such as defining the problem, planning the solution, coding the program, testing the program and documenting the program.

The process begins by identifying the input-given data and the output. In planning the solution, the programmers can draw a flowchart to see the step by step solutions to the problem. Others write a Pseudocode, a nonstandard language that permits the programmers to focus on the program logic. Afterwards, the next step is coding the program and translating the logic from either the flowchart or pseudocode to a programming language such as Pascal, BASIC, COBOL, C and FORTRAN. Then, a test is conducted by some experts to prove that a program is correct. The steps involved in testing are desk-checking, translating and debugging. Lastly, documenting the program is the last and necessary process. It is a written description of the programming cycle and information about the programs like the origin of the problem, narrative description, logic tools, descriptions of data record, list of programs, and testing results.

Language Level

Languages in programming can be ranged from lower to higher which has five generations such as the following:

  • Machine Language. It is the lowest level of language that represents the data and program instructions. The instructions are composed of sequences of ons which coded with number 1 and offs with a 0. These digits correspond to the on and off electrical states of each type of the computer. Each type has its unique machine language.

  • Assembly Languages. These are mnemonic codes and abbreviations which are very easy to remember. An assembler program acts as translator to the programmer who uses this type of language in order to convert the assembly language program to a machine language.

  • High-level Languages. This is a machine-independent language that lets the programmer concentrate on the logic rather than the details of the machine architecture which is required in low-level assembly languages. COBOL, Perl, C, C++ and Java are examples of high level language.

  • Very High Level Languages. It is a programming language that has a very high level of abstraction and used as a professional programmer tool. These are limited to a specific application and type of task. Therefore, this programming language is referred as goal-oriented type.

  • Natural Language. Because of the use of natural language in order to access a knowledge base, it is called as knowledge-based system. The most common application is interacting with another database.

When choosing a language, programmers consider several possibilities such as the dictate of work environment, the need to interface with other programs, the suitability for the task, availability of the language installed in the computer and expertise of the programmer in languages.



How Computer Networking Works for Homes and Business.

How Computer Networking Works for Homes and Business

How Computer Networking Works for Homes and Business


In the computer world, networking is the practice of linking computing devices together to share data. That is the main purpose of computer networks, to move information from one point to another point. Beyond the said purpose, networks are divided by design, connection, architecture and size. The networks establish a server and a client. The client we are talking here can be computers, servers and machines. The clients can connect using the server via network software and hardware.


Networks are categorized in several ways according to the geographic area it spans. Take for example the Local area networks or LANs used for home, school and small office building. Likewise, the Wide area networks or WANS can reach across states, cities and across the world. The Internet is considered the largest public WAN. The two forms of network design are peer-to-peer and client/server. All computers support the same functions with a peer-to-peer network, while a client-server network centralized the server computers to store web pages, email, applications and files.


Home Network


A home network consists of two or more computers connected to form a LAN within the home. It allows the computer owners to interconnect two or more computers to share programs, files, printers and other peripheral device. With the use of Mobile Internet Protocol, the home network has its permanent IP address and the device can be plugged into other foreign networks by using a care-of address temporarily each time it is plugged. This allows the device to be located even when it is not plugged into its home network.



Home networks use both wire and wireless connections. The direct cable connect allows user to connect both computers with a null modem which plugs both computers’ parallel and serial. The traditional Ethernet network requires installing network interface cards inside each computer to interconnect them with a twisted pair cable. The AC network is used when computed are located in different places in your house. You can plug one end of an adapter into the port of your computer and plug the other end into the outlet. The phone line network uses existing phone lines and designed to use your internet connection and phone without any decrease in modem speed. Lastly, the Radio free network which uses frequency waves is used to transmit through floors and walls up to 800 feet.


Most network protocols like TCP/IP work in both wireless and wired networks. Networks with Ethernet cables are commonly used in homes and businesses for many years. While the wireless alternatives have also emerged as the premier technology for building computer networks that have triggered the spread of mobile networking.




Business Network


Most businesses can add additional data storage, communication system and security requirements, especially when venturing to expansion. If home network functions as one LAN, business network contains multiple LANs. Companies are utilizing wide-area networking to connect with their other branches located in different location. The use of voice over IP communication and backup technologies are wide-ranging in businesses to enhance employee business communication.

How Computer Graphics Changed the World


    How Computer Graphics Changed the World 

    Graphics is not only something we made up along with the invention of computers when it is possible to draw pictures on them. The emergence of computer graphics started along with the Whirlwind computer in 1945 when programmers created a series of displayed on the screen and data was received from the radar. Whirlwind was an air defense computer system for the U.S Navy and the first computer that used video displays. In the early 80’s, the personal computer came into life and the next generation of computer graphics programmers began to adapt mainframe-based graphics on the personal computer.

    The Uses of Graphic Design

    Then the rest is called history how computer graphics captured the heart of the end users. While it is true that a picture is really worth a thousand words, computer graphics are computationally intensive. Images are used more than just to enhance the existing material as it also creates great impact to people. Take for example the craze in video games. The computer graphics makes the players have some control over the image and provide them with an input device to signal their request to the computer. See below how computer graphics is widely used in the industry.

     Computer Aided Design (CAD). Computer aided design is the application of computer systems to assist the modification and creation of the design. CAD software increases the productivity and improves the quality design and communications. The major use of computer graphics is applied in the design process for architectural systems and engineering to design textiles, buildings, aircraft, automobiles, etc.

     Presentation Graphics. This is a type of business software which enables the user to create highly images for their slide shows. The presentation improves with computer graphics which produce illustration for reports. The graphics are used to summarize managerial reports, research, information, etc. The system enables you to import the data from a spreadsheet application to create graphs and charts.

     Computer Art. Computer graphics played the major role in production of the artwork such as animation, sound, video, image, video game, website, performance, algorithm, and many more. The integration of digital technologies revolutionized the new media works with the use of digital techniques.

     Entertainment. The application of computer graphics creates an image in printed media, video games, television programs, commercials, and film making. The visual scenes can be static or dynamic, 2D or the latest 3D application.

     Visualization. The application of computer graphics expands its application in education, science, engineering, medicine, interactive multimedia, etc. The examples of visualization techniques are maps, parallel coordinates, table, matrix, timeline, Venn diagram, hyperbolic trees, cluster diagram, etc.

    The computer graphics continues to evolve over time as we are living in the world wherein things change drastically. In a large sense, all images used and created in all forms of media are computer graphics. The success in information technology is the result of a remarkable passion of the graphic artists to bring out the great deal of work that they can offer to mankind.

    Guide to What a Database Is.

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    Guide to What a Database Is

    A database is a system of storing data. It was invented to address the issues that were involved with file-oriented systems. It is now commonly used for fast, easy, and accurate access and sharing of data.

    History of Database

    The 1960’s saw the rise of mainframe computers being used by companies. These computers were used to store large amount of information and were also ran using computer programs, the early versions of which were FORTRAN and COBOL. Eventually, these companies learned that more than just storing data, they also need easy access and sharing of data .

    However, they encountered problems with inconsistent data, redundancy, low standards, and poor programming skills.

    The Management Information Systems (MIS) was then launched in 1964. It is still used as the basis in designing computer systems and data manipulation.

    The 1970’s marked a significant improvement in moving the database management systems forward. This was mostly due to the increase in memory and the reduction in the process used in making computers.

    The 1980’s saw the combination of database hardware systems with database management systems to create a systematic solution.

    In the 1990’s, the focus from running an accurate database shifted to having a low maintenance one.

    These days, work is focused more on automating database systems.

    Uses of Database Systems

    There are many groups of people that can use databases. These include the following:

    • Businesses. This is probably the largest sector that relies on databases round-the-clock. They use it to manage their inventory, payroll, order processing, shipping, accounting, and transportation routing. These are important business processes that would not have gone on without the use of databases.
    • Non-profit organizations. Database in this sector is often used to monitor volunteers, donations, clients, hours of service, and other information.
    • Educational institutions. Schools use databases to keep a record of students, transcripts, grades, transfers, and other school-related information.
    • Households. Databases in homes are often used to record family birthdays, expenses, bills to pay, addresses of relatives and friends, assets, DVD collections, and other home-related data.

    Importance of Database to Business Organizations

    Since the most common use of database lies among businesses, you would understand its importance better if you know how it is used by this sector. Here are the common uses of databases for business organizations:

    • To store product information. The database can store information such as product descriptions, product specifications, reference numbers, promotional offers, prices, and more.
    • To store customer information. Customer databases can store customers’ full names, addresses, and contact details. They may also have information on income, age range, interests, demographic details, and other data necessary to estimate their buying potential.
    • To keep track of transactions. For ecommerce businesses, they need to record the customers’ searches, purchases, information requests, purchase history, product preferences, and buying potential.
    • To monitor marketing campaigns. Databases can help businesses compare previous and current sales to see the results of your promotions. This allows businesses to change their prices, stock levels, or product mix.
    • To personalize offers to customers. Databases that are used to keep customer information can help businesses determine the appropriate offer that would attract the market. This might lead to changes in prizes, creation of new products targeted for a specific niche, or launching a campaign that will catch the attention of a certain market.

    These days, there are more ways that databases can be used due to the need for more information. As information becomes more valuable, so will databases.